Japanese Army Mess Kit - Type 2
Photo Credit : Here
Photo Credit : Here
Old Type Compared to Type 2
Photo Credit : Here
The word "bowl" means a container with a matching lid. In English, Messtin (Mein, meal + can meaning). Primary use is the tableware that the soldier carries with food during field warfare, etc., and the tableware used to receive the distribution of meals is used as a cooking utensil and bucket etc in case of emergency. In Japan, the former Japanese Army improved and used it as a rice cooker during the field campaign, and it has been established for outdoor cooking. Material of the main body and lid is generally made of aluminum.
Speaking of merely a cooking utensil in Japan, it refers to a bent flat shape called mainly kidney (kidney) type (or fava bean type), also called a military formula. The "Robin Bowl" equipped with soldiers of the former Japanese Army is in its original form, and because there are other officers, there is the name "Military Equation" in the sense of "for soldiers". Other shapes include rectangle (for former Japanese army officers, French army etc.), elliptical ones (Swedish army) etc. Recently used for leisure in Japan, which has become more used by camping stove than bonfire, the number of cylindrical ones has increased.
The unique shape of the military cupboard is seen in military food containers of various countries such as Europe, and it has been adopted in the former Japanese Army and the Ground Self Defense Force in Japan as well. The reason for adopting this shape is as follows.
In order to be stabilized without being bulky when carrying it with a belt or a backpack (rucksack) being carried around (a similar shape can be seen also in a European food box not mainly used for cooking and a military water bottle in each country, so this is the first It is considered to be the reason).
When cooking at the same time through sticks in a crane with a large number of bowls, the width of the whole can be narrowed, the gauze can be made smaller, and the firewood can be saved and efficient.
Even with rice cooker evenly cooked with fire, heat can easily be turned around by convection, so rice can be easily cooked.
When carrying a plurality of cooked food containers containing contents after cooked together in one hand, they are uniformly leveled and stabilized unlike other shapes.
Japan 's ice bin is specialized for rice cooking, standard rice cooker is 4 rice cooked rice, the body is marked 2, 4 indication of the amount of water used is stamped. Besides the main body, it consists of a lid and a core (inner lid and hook), and it is also used for weighing dishes and rice (2 cores and 3 covers). In the former Japanese Army, the lid part of the bowl was called "Menko" .
As a cooked cooked with fire or put on hand, you can put a ferrule (vine) on the main body. There are also types of things that only rotate, and types that can be slid to make it bulky for carrying (boiler for officers and self-defense forces, for some leisure). Among the Japanese food cups, there were also things that mainly used "tableware" "lunch box" and had no fishing stations (such as early officer's kitchen, small serving nurse small food box).
There is also a type that can be used as a frying pan with a handle made of steel in a foldable manner on the outer lid (general for military use in European countries), Tyrole formula for Japanese leisure · Swiss type.
In Japan's traditional military style cupboard, a metal threading bracket arrives to pass the belt vertically on the outside of the body. This was used to tie the backpack with a flat string or belt, but since it is almost never carried in such a form today, in recent years this product was omitted in many products. It is also possible to hook an L-shaped bracket to this belt thread and use it as a removable handle.
It seems that the bowl has origins in Europe, but its history is shallow. Because irons and other metals are not suitable for carrying due to their high specific gravity, it was not realistic to carry cooking utensils. Aluminum was discovered in 1886 and its mass production became possible, so outdoor cooking appliances based on cell phones became realistic. From the end of the 19th century the same Swiss style as it is today was used in Germany. Also, you can find the same design as the present one in German military formulas established in 1931 (but with a handle to use the lid as a frying pan). Also, you can see that the main characters are being used when receiving meals with "no western fighter irregularities".
Below, we will mainly explain the Japanese bowl.
In Japan it seems that after the Meiji Restoration, there was a record that Tokugawa Yoshinobi cooked rice cooking at home at home, it was introduced with western style troops. Before the introduction of the bowl, the men's weirs were almost identical to those in the Warring States era, which carries 糒 and baked miso. The former Japanese Army adopted a bowl of rice is said to be around the Sino-Japanese War. However, at that time, the lunch box was only available as a dishware by lacquering and enameling. It is 1890 (Meiji 23) that a cooker with a cooking function like today is adopted, it is said that it was manufactured by the army firearm factory. It became a Western style design, and was further devised to cook rice.
In the peacetime life in peacetime, we ate the meal cooked in the kitchen at the cafeteria, and the menu was not much different from the family such as miso soup and pickles in the rice. Cooking with cooked rice has the danger of exposing the arrangement and forces of units to the enemy due to the number of smoke and rice, limited to the case of the field and inevitable. For field warfare on the battlefield, basically it is necessary to distribute meals cooked by the backward field cups in battalion units to each subordinate unit, and each soldier received the dispensed dish with a cooker. In addition, as a portable meal, a handful of rice etc was also distributed. Only when it can not receive such replenishment, we cooked it with a cooker on the front line.
Since that time, the military cupboard is usually 4 cooked, and the capacity is larger than military foodstuffs of each country in Europe. This is because Japanese soldiers at that time standard 2, 1 meal so that you can cook 2 servings at once. Many lunch boxes for leisure today are cooked 4 times today, but this is a remnant of that. The Meiji period - the early Showa period military cupboard was slightly smaller than today's thing. Until the conclusion of the Pacific War (Great East Asia War), the same shape as the today's leisure cabinet style washbasket, which is mainly called the Robin Bowl, was adopted.
There was a pair cooked by a plurality of soldiers and each cooked rice cooked by each soldier in the cooking rice cooker. In the case of cooked rice cooker, we cooked side dishes using cooked rice cooker and a few cooked rice bowls in a set. In each cooking rice cooked rice, cooking rice was cooked with rice cooking by putting side dish into the inner lid when cooking rice. It is inevitable that it is impossible for each side to cook side dish of by-products and it is inevitable. In the "Army Cooking Law" of the Army's cooking manual, it is inevitable to cook rice cooking and side dishes at the same time with a single cooker Aside from avoiding it, I ordered to cook together as much as possible with multiple ice packs. When a soldier carries a ritual, he usually puts it in a cloth bag and places it in the backpack, but there were cases where I carried raw rice in a bowl and carried it.
The Ninety-two style kitchen utensil (also known as "Double Bottle"), which was adopted in 1932 (Showa 7th - Imperial 2592), seems to be a military cupboard but it has a unique double structure. It is a nesting style of the inner and outer cases, and when using both, it is possible to cook up to 8 rice at the same time, or cook rice 4 mix and miso soup at the same time. It was necessary to cook at least two times for cooking 3 meals / 6 cups a day in the 4 cooked cooking utensils until then, but in the ninety two style cooking utensil it became possible to cook at once. However, due to the disadvantages such as complicated structure and complicated structure compared to a general military style cupboard, it was soon replaced by the above-mentioned No. 1 bowl.
In the end of the Pacific War in 1944 (1949), the inner lid was omitted from the bowl and was made of casting in order to shortage the metals and simplify the production process.
After the end of the war, it seems that the bunkan taken out by veteran soldiers was utilized in the daily life of shortage of supplies.
Current usage status 
For military use, even now the bowl has been adopted in military equipment in various countries such as Europe and Russia. However, due to the necessity of firewood and evolution of evolution, in the US military, the dishes were removed from dishes and knives that would become frying pans with knobs and knife kit of fork cocoa. In the Ground Self Defense Force, after the war, we used a cooker with the same structure as the No. 4 cooker (later called type 1) for many years, but mostly it was not used for cooking and it was mainly used as dishes. Today, priority is placed on convenience as tableware, it is turned into what is called "battle cooker 2 type", which is low in height and small in capacity (2 cookable).
Also, even in climbing, cooking stove has become widespread, firefighting during climbing has hardly been done, that the shape of the military cabinet is not suitable for use with a stove, easy to use and storage efficiency cookies Has become popular, because of the development of retort pouch foods and freeze dried foods, it is almost impossible to use it. Demand has also diversified due to the appearance of a special cooker called rice cooker for camps. Nonetheless, even in modern times camping and forest school in elementary and junior high schools, cooking is a standard event. In addition to cooking rice, the unique shape of the military cupboard is suitable for cooking curry and rice retort packs, or cooked instant noodles (in particular 2 servings) that were shaped square. Also, because it has depth, it is suitable for boiling pasta, noodles and other noodles. Demand for cooking containers including its unique design and atmosphere is still few now, and it is still being sold at home centers and outdoor equipment shops.
Also, general ice cups and rice cookers are large in capacity and not suitable for single lines, so square-shaped Mestin manufactured by Trangia, which was originally a "dishwasher with steering wheel", is sometimes used as a single-person cabinet in Japan . However, this is a unique usage in Japan and is not used for cooking in foreign countries except for boiling water.
In addition, although it is largely out of the original purpose of use, there are examples of using a military formula as a sewing tool holder.
Method of outdoor cooking [Edit]
Put the sharpened rice and water and put the lid on the fire without putting the inner lid.
When placing more than two fire at a time, dig in a shallow groove on the ground, place the fuel, pierce the Y branches of the wooden branches at both ends, stick a bar of a plurality of bowls (usually a tree branch as well) I do not mind it, but when hanging up a large number of bowls at once, a metal rod is preferable) to hang on the Y shape.
It is convenient to make a tripod shape when cooking with only one piece. Prepare a wire of about 2 meters, bundle one end of a straight wooden branch of about the same length, open the other like a tripod and stand on the ground. Hang the rest of the wire down, hang it through the string of the bowl, and wrap it around the wire around the rest and stop. By spreading or narrowing the tripod, it is possible to freely adjust the height and position of the ice bin.
Apply branches or sticks of wood to the lid and cook it up when the vibration disappears. Eat after inverting the cooker upside down and steaming for several minutes. Although there is no big difference in the finish without upside-down, it will be easier to drop later as the burnt that is made inside is steamed. When you turn upside down, wipe off the dirt on the bottom with grass etc., it will be easier to wash later. Some people strike down the bottom of the cooker with branches of trees or the like while upside down, but this has no advantage because it just sinks the bottom of the cooker.
There are times when you may put a weight on the lid so that steam is difficult to escape. When boiling at high altitude boiling point drops due to atmospheric pressure, temperature does not rise higher than when cooking on low ground, so you may not be able to cook well, so increase the pressure by placing a stone. For example, if the area of the lid is 100 square centimeters, you can compensate for the pressure corresponding to the altitude of about 1000 m by placing a 10 kg stone.
If you apply powder cleanser dissolved in water to the outside of the cooker before it put on fire, the soot adhering around the cooker when it is put on fire becomes easy to drop. This is a method that can be used commonly for tools used for fire (pots, kettles, etc.).